Lipscomb, S. T., Leve, L. D., Harold, G. T., Neiderhiser, J. M., Shaw, D. S., Ge, X., & Reiss, D. (2011). Trajectories of parenting and child negative emotionality during infancy and toddlerhood: A longitudinal analysis. Child Development, 82, 1661–1675. PMC: 3177150
Abstract: The current longitudinal study examined trajectories of child negative emotionality, parenting efficacy, and overreactive parenting among 382 adoptive families during infancy and toddlerhood. Data were collected from adoptive parents when the children were 9, 18, and 27 months old. Latent growth curve modeling indicated age-related increases in child negative emotionality, overreactive parenting for adoptive fathers and adoptive mothers, and decreases in parent efficacy among adoptive mothers. Increases in child negative emotionality were also associated with increases in parent overreactivity and decreases in maternal efficacy. Mothers’ and fathers’ developmental patterns were linked within but not across parenting domains. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.