Marceau, K., Hajal, N., Leve, L. D., Reiss, D., Shaw, D.S., Ganiban, J. M., Mayes, L. C., & Neiderhiser, J. M. (2013). Measurement and associations of pregnancy risk factors with genetic influences, postnatal environmental influences, and toddler behavior. International Journal of Behavior Development, 37, 366–375. PMC: 4018759
Abstract: This study demonstrates the unique contributions of perinatal risk and genetic and environmental influences on child behavior using data from 561 domestic US adoption triads (birth mothers, adopted child, and adoptive parents). Findings show distinct patterns of associations amonggenetic (birth mother psychopathology), prenatal (six maternal reported aggregate scores characterizing total obstetric complications, perinatal internalizing symptoms, pregnancy complications, exposure to toxins, substance use, and neonatal complications), and postnatal influences (adoptive parent 18-month internalizing symptoms and over-reactive parenting) and toddler behavior problems (CBCL subscales at 27 months). Findings highlight multiple pathways for toddler’s behavioral development, including genetic, pregnancy, and postnatal main effects. Findings suggest distinct types of pregnancy risk may transmit genetic influences for specific behavior problems rather than broadband problems.