Rhoades, K. A., Leve, L. D., Harold, G. T., Mannering, A. M., Neiderhiser, J. M., Shaw, D. S., Natsuaki, M. N., & Reiss, D. (2012). Marital hostility and parent-reported child sleep problems in early childhood: Indirect associations via hostile parenting and genetic moderation. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 488-498.
Abstract: The current study examined two family process predictors of parent-reported child sleep problems at 4.5 years in an adoption sample: marital hostility and hostile parenting. Participants were 361 linked triads of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children. We examined direct and indirect pathways from marital hostility to child sleep problems via hostile parenting. Mothers’ marital hostility at 9 months was associated with child sleep problems at 4.5 years. Fathers’ marital hostility at 9 months evidenced an indirect effect on child sleep problems at 4.5 years via fathers’ hostile parenting at 27 months. Findings were significant even after controlling for genetic influences on child sleep (i.e., birth parent internalizing disorders). The findings suggest targets for prevention and intervention programs that are potentially modifiable (e.g., hostile parenting, marital hostility), and inform theory by demonstrating that relations among marital hostility, hostile parenting, and child sleep problems are significant after accounting for genetic influences.